Krav Magapron.: /krɑːvməˈɡɑː/ (Hebrew: קרב מגע[ˈkʁav maˈɡa], lit. "contact combat") is a noncompetitive eclecticself-defense system developed in Israel that involves boxing, Muay Thai, jiu-jitsu, wrestling, and grappling
techniques, along with realistic fight training. Krav Maga is known for
its focus on real-world situations and extremely efficient, brutal counter-attacks. It was derived from street-fighting skills developed by Hungarian-Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld, who made use of his training as a boxer and wrestler, as a means of defending the Jewish quarter against fascist groups in Bratislava
in the mid-to-late 1930s. In the late 1940s, following his immigration
to Israel, he began to provide lessons on combat training to what was to
become the IDF,
who went on to develop the system that became known as Krav Maga. It
has since been refined for civilian, police and military applications.
Krav Maga has a philosophy emphasizing threat neutralization, simultaneous defensive and offensive maneuvers, and aggression. Krav Maga is used by Israeli Defense Forces, both regular and special
forces, and several closely related variations have been developed and
adopted by law enforcement and intelligence organizations, Mossad and Shin Bet. There are several organizations teaching variations of Krav Maga internationally.
"Traditional taekwondo" typically refers to the martial art as it was established in the 1950s and 1960s in the South Korean military,
and in various civilian organisations, including schools and
universities. In particular, the names and symbolism of the traditional
patterns often refer to elements of Korean history,
culture and religious philosophy. 'Traditional Taekwon-Do' may refer to
ITF Taekwon-Do as created by the founder of ITF Taekwon-Do General Choi
Hong Hi on April 11, 1955.
"Sport taekwondo" has developed in the decades since the 1950s and
may have a somewhat different focus, especially in terms of its emphasis
on speed and competition (as in Olympic sparring). Sport taekwondo is
in turn subdivided into two main styles; one is practiced by WTF
Taekwondo practitioners, and derives from Kukkiwon, the source of the sparring system sihap gyeorugi which is now an event at the summer Olympic Games and which is governed by the World Taekwondo Federation
(WTF). Today, the Kukkiwon, or World Taekwondo Headquarters is the
traditional center for WTF taekwondo; founded by Dr Kim Un Yong on May
25, 1973.. The other comes from the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF).
Although there are doctrinal
and technical differences between sparring in the two main styles and
among the various organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks
thrown from a mobile stance, employing the leg's greater reach and power
(compared to the arm). Taekwondo training generally includes a system
of blocks, kicks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include
various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks. Some taekwondo
instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as jiapsul, as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as hapkido and judo.
In Korean, tae (태, 跆) means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon (권, 拳) means "to strike or break with fist"; and do (도, 道) means "way", "method", or "path". Thus, taekwondo may be loosely translated as "the way of the hand and the foot." The name taekwondo is also written as taekwon-do, tae kwon-do, or tae kwon do by various organizations.
Sambo (Russian: са́мбо; IPA: [ˈsambə]; САМооборона Без Оружия) is a Russian martial art and combat sport. The word "SAMBO" is an acronym for SAMooborona Bez Oruzhiya,
which literally translates as "self-defense without weapons". Sambo is
relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the SovietRed Army to improve their hand-to-hand combat abilities. Intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts, Sambo has roots in Japanese judo, international styles of wrestling, plus traditional folk styles of wrestling such as: ArmenianKokh, GeorgianChidaoba, RomanianTrîntǎ, TatarKöräş, UzbekKurash, MongolianKhapsagay and AzerbaijaniGulesh.
The pioneers of Sambo were Viktor Spiridonov and Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the political purges of 1937
after accusations of being a Japanese spy. Oshchepkov spent much of his
life living in Japan and training judo under its founder Kano Jigoro.
The two men independently developed two different styles, which
eventually cross-pollinated and became what is known as Sambo. Compared
to Oshchepkov's judo-based system, then called "Freestyle Wrestling",
Spiridonov's style was softer and less strength dependent. This was in
large part due to Spiridonov's injuries sustained during World War I. Anatoly Kharlampiev,
a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is often officially considered the
founder of Sport Sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport
by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee.
There are three FIAS recognized competitive sport variations of Sambo
(though Sambo techniques and principles can be applied to many other
Sport Sambo (Russian: Борьбa Самбо, Bor'ba Sambo, Sambo Wrestling (eng)) is stylistically similar to Olympic Freestyle Wrestling or Judo, but with some differences in rules, protocol, and uniform. For example, in contrast with judo, Sambo allows some types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds. It focuses on throwing, ground work and submissions, with (compared to Judo) very few restrictions on gripping and holds.
Combat Sambo (Russian: Боевое Самбо, Boyevoye Sambo). Utilized and developed for the military, Combat Sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including extensive forms of striking and grappling
where (unlike Sport Sambo) choking and bent joint locks are legal.
Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but also hand protection and
sometimes shin and head protection. The first FIAS World Combat Sambo
Championships were held in 2001.
Freestyle Sambo – uniquely American set of competitive Sambo
rules created by the American Sambo Association (ASA) in 2004. These
rules differ from traditional Sport Sambo in that they allow choke holds
and other submissions from Combat Sambo that are not permitted in Sport
Sambo as well as certain neck cranks and twisting leg locks. Freestyle
Sambo, like all Sambo, focuses on throwing skills and fast ground work.
No strikes are permitted in Freestyle Sambo. The ASA created this rule
set in order to encourage non-Sambo practitioners from judo and jiujitsu
to participate in Sambo events.
Boxing (pugilism, prize fighting, the sweet science or in Greekpygmachia) is a martial art and combat sport in which two people engage in a contest of strength, reflexes, and endurance by throwing punches with gloved hands.
Amateur boxing is an Olympic and Commonwealth sport and is a common
fixture in most of the major international games - it also has its own
World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee
over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. The
result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a
referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, resigns by throwing in a
towel, or is pronounced the winner or loser based on the judges'
scorecards at the end of the contest.
The birth hour of boxing as a sport may be its acceptance by the ancient Greeks as an Olympic game
as early as 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century
prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern
boxing in the mid-19th century, again initially in Great Britain and
later in the United States. In 2004, ESPN ranked boxing as the most difficult sport in the world.
Originating from the full contact sport of Vale tudo in Brazil,
the UFC was created in the United States in 1993 with minimal rules, and
was promoted as a competition to determine the most effective martial
art for unarmed combat situations.
It wasn't long before the
fighters realized that if they wanted to be competitive among the best,
they needed to train in additional disciplines. UFC fighters began to
morph into well-rounded, balanced fighters that could fight standing or
on the floor. This blend of fighting styles and skills became known as
mixed martial arts (MMA).
Today, the UFC is the premier organization in MMA and enforces the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts without exception. With more than 20 fights every year, the UFC hosts most of the top-ranked fighters in the world. Events are held not only in America, but in many countries all over the globe.
Silat was used by the ancient Malay Archipelago early kingdoms of defence forces in Langkasuka (Kedah,Malaysia), Champa (Cambodian), Srivijaya (Sumatra,Indonesia), Beruas (Perak,Malaysia), Melaka (Malaysia), Makasar (Sulawesi,Indonesia), Aceh (Indonesia), Majapahit (Java,Indonesia), Gangga Negara (Perak,Malaysia), Pattani (Southern Thailand) and other kingdoms in Southeast Asia.
There are hundreds of different styles but they tend to focus either on
strikes, joint manipulation, throws, bladed weaponry, or some
combination thereof. Silat is one of the sports included in the Southeast Asian Games
and other region-wide competitions. Training halls are overseen by
separate national organizations in each of the main countries the art is
practiced. These are Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) from Malaysia, Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI) from Indonesia, Persekutuan Silat Brunei Darussalam (PERSIB) from Brunei and Persekutuan Silat Singapura (PERSISI) from Singapore.